The Metropolitan Groups
01 Constitution and representatives
For the choice of the key players that make up the Metropolitan Group of each member city, emphasis was put on the fact that its composition be heterogeneous in order to address the various issues according to particular views and different levels of public and private representation.
Firstly, it was requested that the representation consist of groups of 10 to 15 people. In reality, some members found this to be a limitation, given the participation and the response of a larger number of interested parties. This modification of the original premises was validated by the partners as they found it necessary to open up participation to a greater number of participants.
For the call for participants, a list of competencies was proposed that would cover a broad involvement of all sectors of society. The group was to be composed of representatives from civil society and decision makers for each work item, in turn connected to a transnational level. Thus, the heterogeneity of the representatives would provide contrasting solutions, capitalised by other similar situations; this being a fundamental feature.
For the selection and coordination of the group, an identification and tracking form was developed to consider the different levels of representation, suggesting that the group should have at least one member from the following proposed areas:
- Representatives of public administration with decision making abilities (planning, housing, transportation, environment, economy, social, etc.).
- Representatives from the various levels of government according to the competencies of each country (for example, in France, a representative from national government was necessary, but not for Spain).
- Representatives of public or paragovernmental bodies related to public services (transport, water, energy, waste management, etc.).
- Representatives of the private sector (business associations, developers, etc.).
- Outside experts (universities, professional associations, consultants, etc.).
- Representatives of civil society (civic associations, NGOs, etc.).
The overall organisation of the Metropolitan Group was to be headed by a coordinator, a key to the success of the meetings and obtaining the results that would form a guide for intervention proposals for sustainable urban models.
The coordinator had sufficient clear guidelines and support materials to hold the introductory meeting and three work meetings to collect and analyse the information emerging from the same meetings and to enrich and accompany the group’s progress toward the definition of proposals which characterise the Green Apple.
Part of the material provided to carry out their role included:
- A guide to monitoring and implementation of the tasks foreseen by the introductory and three work meetings.
- Information on the CAT-MED project.
- Identification and diagnosis forms of the Green Apple providing a better understanding of the selected sector.
- Six forms constituting the Guide to Planning and Design. These forms list the goals and a series of proposals that serve as a guide for solutions. These were drawn up based on the indicators studied and analysed before. The indicators are not directly applied but act transversely, helping to extend the proposals.
- Six summary forms which would provide the basis for the eighteen proposals that are part of this document.
The project included four meetings for discussing the six issues and to make proposals to define sustainable urban models. The first meeting was introductory in nature where the coordinator was to present the project, explain the objectives and the results to be achieved. A visit to the selected area where the project is to be implemented was also planned, allowing stakeholders a better understanding of the situation and the characteristics of the site. For this, the coordinator gave the actors in the group all the information tools necessary, both from the CAT-MED project as well as working documents among which were the first two forms for the Guide to Planning and Design: Territorial management and urban design; Mobility and transport. Thus, the actors were given a preliminary approach to the subject to be dealt with at the first work meeting.
The same procedure was repeated in subsequent meetings, providing forms in advance to be used in the second and third meetings; this would guarantee an active and committed participation of stakeholders during meetings, after prior examination of the issues to be discussed.
It is important to note that not all the actors were skilled in all the issues covered; however, their views and participation were considered equally valuable as they not only received input from the thematic specialisation but also from experience.
Each meeting was organised in such a way that would allow its success and to collect a set of findings and proposals converted to a conclusions file summarising all initiatives raised during the group meeting. This report would become a key document when obtaining proposals and results and selecting the main actions for each of the Green Apples of partner cities. Moreover, these would serve as benchmarks for the cities and would provide different solutions, already capitalised in other similar realities.
03 Summary of the meetings
Territorial management and urban planning
It should be noted that all the metropolitan groups considered the quality of public space as an important issue. They all agree that this should be the «backbone» rather than a neglected issue to be dealt with as an afterthought. Public space is perceived as an element that gives coherence to the urban project on several levels: as a meeting place, a place for social interaction, an infrastructure for promoting alternative modes of transport (pedestrian spaces, cycle tracks) and as an element of urban cohesion.
Another strong topic of discussion in these groups was the concept of bioclimatics. The appropriation and development of planning and construction techniques which respect bioclimatic principles has become obvious today. Sketches taking into account sunlight, shade and prevailing winds feature in all the projects, attempting to link the density and compactness criteria with those of bioclimatic design.
Finally, the marked emphasis on green spaces is another common denominator of the projects and proposals in the metropolitan groups. These spaces vary in nature: from green roofs, city gardens and urban parks to the creation and networking of green corridors (green infrastructures). The projects in the Attica Region, Marseille, Thessaloniki, and Valencia all plan to create a large urban park close to or within the «Green Apple».
Mobility and transport
The same question arises in all the cities in the project i.e. how to restrict the space taken up by cars and what alternatives to put forward?
The corollary to this is the development of public transport and inter-modal platforms at the heart of the metropolitan group proposals. Interlinking bus, tram and metro networks play a central role in the projects of Attica, Marseille and Thessaloniki, for instance. In Malaga, they have opted for the local rail network (cercanias).
Another common concern is parking. Indeed, while there is a wish for part of the public space to be given over to pedestrians and soft forms of transport, new solutions must be found to reduce the space devoted to car parking. To do so, the metropolitan groups have proposed underground parking and/or car pooling (Malaga, Rome, Thessaloniki), as well as decentralised car parks (Barcelona, CPA) or outside the Green Apple. Another proposal was to limit the number of parking spaces available, to reduce car use.
There is general consensus in regard to promoting alternative modes of transport such as bike services, car sharing and car leasing, increasing the number of electric bicycles and scooters, developing initiatives like the «Pedibus» which allows children to walk to school in complete safety. In Genoa, a maritime shuttle links the main centre (Porto Antico) to more remote centres. The system is scheduled to serve the Voltri neighbourhood, the Green Apple of Genoa.
Finally, several Spanish partners (Barcelona, Seville) have considered the «superblock» concept based on creating a hierarchy of roads and pedestrian walkways for a number of routes at the heart of habitation blocks.
Natural resources management and ecological footprint
In keeping with the preliminary remarks in this document about the mobilizing role of the fight against climate change, all the metropolitan groups have put forward proposals to reduce energy consumption and produce renewable energy. These proposals involve building insulation and bioclimatic construction (already mentioned in the previous paragraph). They are also directed at public lighting (Rome) or the setting up of small renewable energy production units, essentially solar panels.
Water management is another key topic taken up by all the groups. The proposals revolve around two main areas: improved management of the distribution system to avoid losses in the network, and the need to take account of the water cycle and the reduction of water consumption. In the second area, the proposals are directed at raising awareness, in various ways. Turin has proposed setting up a «Water Point» in the neighbourhood to reduce the purchase of plastic water bottles and increase the residents’ awareness of responsible water consumption. The Barcelona group has opted for the «water self-sufficiency» concept.
Lastly, as might logically be expected, the metropolitan group proposals also focus on the treatment of waste. This topic also combines awareness campaigns with improvements in the collection of sorted waste and waste management.
Across the three main areas i.e. the management of energy, water and waste, there is clearly a need for ongoing, long-term work on enhancing citizen awareness about reducing consumption and sorting waste. But for the messages to be heard, urban management systems for water, energy and waste must be effective and consistent with the demands placed on citizens.
Proximity is the common denominator of many of the proposals made by the metropolitan groups. Whether it be to encourage «0 kilometre» product distribution systems, joint management of public areas and green spaces with the local residents or to bring businesses closer to residential zones, proximity is the key word. This proximity is seen as a chance to reinforce the local community, its complexity and economic activity as well as neighbourhood relations and quality of life.
Another leading topic picked up by all the metropolitan groups is that of housing. When a social and cultural mix is encouraged, housing becomes a key parameter of its efficiency. Housing needs to be affordable and to meet the needs and expectations of the residents as part of the overall dense urban fabric. All the projects feature social housing or subsidized housing schemes as well as private housing, thus ensuring a varied offer in keeping with diversified and changing residential needs. Innovative proposals have also emerged around the notion of group habitation (Genoa) or solidarity cohabitation (Turin). Solidarity cohabitation has gradually developed to offer flat-sharing for students at very affordable prices in return for a number of hours devoted to the activities of the neighbourhood, and to services and work of general interest to the community.
Metropolitan groups in Barcelona, Marseille and the CPA have emphasized the possibilities of pooling facilities (sports facilities, performance halls, school buildings, etc) with the surrounding neighbourhoods. These facilities would then become places where people mix and would help to integrate the area as part of the urban fabric.
Finally the metropolitan groups of Seville, Malaga and Turin want their Green Apple areas to acquire a strong, positive identity, linked to the development of cultural activities. This identity would then be a factor of social cohesion, thereby enhancing the image of the area in the eyes of the rest of the city.
The subject of governance is hard to deal with outside the exact, specific contexts. The proposals made in this area vary from one group to another, according to the specific problems in each process of conception.
Nevertheless two convergent trends have emerged:
The need to increase collaborative approaches and efforts to communicate with citizens: the importance of residents’ participation has been emphasized by all the groups and several proposals have been made to achieve this. In Malaga, the metropolitan group has proposed the «transfer of collective responsibility» toward the residents. This process may take the form of a Charter of the Rights and Duties of the residents. The joint management of public and communal spaces has also been regularly proposed. The modes of implementation are often complex, but may guarantee the appropriation and respect for these spaces on the part of residents and citizens.
The creation of a centre combining various functions e.g. joint management of public spaces and facilities, setting up participatory processes with residents, a reception and information centre engaged in raising awareness and educating the public (Valencia, Barcelona), a one-stop administrative centre combining all the public services, providing clear answers to residents and users (Marseille).
Specific Mediterranean characteristics
This topic gave rise to several convergent proposals regarding the geographic, climatic and spatial characteristics of the Mediterranean. The most relevant issue is the integration of native vegetation adapted to the Mediterranean climate in the design of green spaces. The themes of water cycle management and biodiversity are often related to this issue. Other proposals put forward by the different projects revolve around the potential to produce renewable energies to meet the energy needs. The theme of Mediterranean-style building is also referred to on several occasions (Genoa, CPA) as well as the use of local materials. The issue of public spaces and outdoor living is also at the heart of the concerns expressed by the metropolitan groups. Rome, for instance, underlined the cultural aspects linked to these spaces, such as art (murals) or the creation of areas to be used on an informal basis for sports and games activities. These proposals sometimes link with those developed in other thematic groups. They are all intended to promote a «Mediterranean approach» in the design of a project, which is adapted to the overall physical environment of the sectors.
In terms of the social characteristics of Mediterranean cities, some metropolitan groups have focused their proposals on creating multicultural environments based on a social, ethnic and inter-generational cohesion. In Valencia, the integration of populations that are vulnerable in the wide sense is considered as a specifically Mediterranean characteristic. In Malaga, it is hoped that the promotion of sustainable tourism will provide a partial response to Mediterranean issues.
Finally, several proposals were discussed in regard to the funding mechanisms required to perpetuate investment capacities in urban renewal operations. A common need has emerged to create funding tools that facilitate the mobilisation of public and private funds, in the light of shared social responsibility for a common urban project.
04 Key actors – Metropolitan Groups
Dirección de urbanismo, Ayuntamiento de Figueres
Departamento de planificación urbanística y medio ambiente, Ayuntamiento de Figueres
Secretaría de vivienda. Generalitat de Catalunya.
Dirección general de calidad de la edificación y rehabilitación de la vivienda, Generalitat de Catalunya.
Universidad politécnica de Catalunya
Agencia de Ecología Urbana de Barcelona
Arquitectos, expertos externos
Community of Pays d´Aix
Maire de la municipalité de Venelles
Direction de l’urbanisme, municipalité de Venelles
Direction des Services Techniques municipalité de Venelles
Direction de l’Environnement, Communauté du Pays d’Aix
Direction de la planification urbaine, Communauté du Pays d’Aix
Direction Habitat et Politique de la Ville, Communauté du Pays d’Aix
Direction déplacements et Transports, Communauté du Pays d’Aix
Direction de l’Aménagement du territoire, Conseil régional Provence Alpes Côte d’Azur
EPF PACA Etablissement Public Foncier Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur
Association régionale d’organismes HLM (d'Habitations à Loyer Modéré Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur et Corse
EDF – Electricité de France – Direction Développement Territorial
CAUE 13 – Conseil en architecture, Urbanisme, Environnement – Bouches-du-Rhône
Université Paul Cézanne Aix Marseille III
Centre d’Etudes Juridiques et urbanisme
Institut de la Méditerranée
SEMEPA Société d'Economie Mixte d'Equipement du Pays d'Aix
Bâtiments Durables Méditerranéens
Direction Départementale des Territoires et de la Mer des Bouches-du-Rhône.
Chambre de Commerce et d’Industrie Marseille– Provence – Pôle Stratégies du territoire
Société Publique Locale d’Aménagement Pays D’Aix Territoires
Urban Lab - Comune di Genova
Comune di Genova - Settore Ambiente
Comune di Genova - Relazioni Internazionali
Comune di Genova - Acquisizione finanziamenti
Autorità Portuale di Genova
Università degli studi di Genova
Facoltà di Architettura – Dipartimento di Scienze dell’Architettura
Municipio VII Ponente
ARE Liguria SpA – Agenzia Regionale per l’Energia della Liguria
AMI - Azienda Mobilita' e Infrastrutture di Genova SpA
AMIU Genova SpA - Azienda Multiservizi e d'Igiene Urbana
Aster SpA - Azienda Servizi Territoriali Genova
Ance Genova ASSEDIL: Associazione dei Costruttori Edili della Provincia di Genova
Associazione Amici del Capolinea
Consorcio UTRI Mare
Proloco Voltri 2000
Associazione Ponente che balla
ASD Pescatori S. Ambrogio
Agesci Gruppo Genova 7
ANPI Sezione Voltri
Associazione Pescatori Ponente Leira
Servicio de Proyectos y Obras de Arquitectura. Departamento de arquitectura y conservación, Gerencia Municipal de Urbanismo, Obras y Arquitectura, Ayuntamiento de Málaga
Departamento de Planeamiento y Gestión Urbanística, Gerencia Municipal de Urbanismo, Obras y Arquitectura, Ayuntamiento de Málaga
Infraestructura y Transporte, Ayuntamiento de Málaga
Departamento de proyectos, Instituto Municipal de la Vivienda, Ayuntamiento de Málaga
Agencia Local de Energía, Ayuntamiento de Málaga
Sección de Sostenibilidad y Programas Ambientales, Diputación Provincial de Málaga
Instituto Superior de Economía Local, Área de Hacienda y Presupuestos, Diputación Provincial de Málaga
Experto externo Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
Experto externo, arquitecto a cargo del planeamiento del área de El Duende
Experto externo estudio Pich Aguilera Equip Arquitectura
Experto externo Universidad de Málaga.
Asociación Ambiental Malaka
Representante de asuntos culturales a cargo de la gestión de la obra del Museo Thyssen de Málaga
AGAM: Agence d'urbanisme de l'agglomération marseillaise
BDM : Bâtiments Durables Méditerranéens
Marseille Provence 2013
Centre Communal d’Action Sociale
FBTP13: Fédération du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics des Bouches-du-Rhône
Direction Départementale des Territoires et de la Mer des Boûches-du-Rhône
ATMO PACA: Asociación para el seguimiento y evaluación de la calidad del aire. Región PACA (Provenza-Alpes-Costa Azul)
Direction de la Construction, des Régies et de l’entretien - Ville de Marseille
Société des Eaux de Marseille
Direction générale à la Ville durable et à l’expansion - Ville de Marseille
Direction Environnement et espace urbain – Ville de Marseille
Délégation Générale à la Vie Citoyenne et à la Proximité - Ville de Marseille
Direction de la Vie scolaire, des crèches et de la jeunesse – Ville de Marseille
Direction des relations internationales et européennes - Ville de Marseille
Direction de l’action culturelle – Ville de Marseille
Prospective– Ville de Marseille
Institut de la Méditerranée
Conseil Régional Relations Internationales – Affaires européennes
Association régionale d’organismes HLM (d'Habitations à Loyer Modéré Provence Alpes Côte d’Azur et Corse
Société immobilière SOGIMA
Etablissement Public d’Aménagement Euromediterranée
SERAM: Société d'Exploitation du Réseau d'Assainissement de Marseille
MPM: Communauté Urbaine Marseille Provence Métropole
ADEME: Agence de l’Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l’Energie.
Region of Attica
The National Technical University (NTUA)
The Centre of Athens Labor Unions (EKA)
Municipality of Hellenikon-Argyroupoli
Athens’s Prefecture Council and Training Centre’s Council.(Local Authority)
Prefecture Public Works (today Region of Attica- Local Authority)
Athens’s Prefecture Budget and Financial Services (today Region of Attica-Local Authority)
Greek Technical chamber
I.E.M. S.A. (Integrated Environmental Management S.A.- Consulting & Engineering company on Environment, Renewable Energy, Innovative Process, Green Innovations)
Dipartimento Partecipazioni e controllo Gruppo Roma Capitale - Sviluppo economico locale U.O. Statistica e Censimento Marketing territoriale - Roma Capitale
Dipartimento Tutela Ambiente e del Verde - Protezione Civile - Roma Capitale
Dipartimento Mobilità e Trasporti- Roma Capitale
Dipartimento del Patrimonio e della Casa - Roma Capitale
Dipartimento Programmazione e Attuazione Urbanistica - Roma Capitale
Dipartimento Sviluppo Infrastrutture e Manutenzione Urbana - Roma Capitale
V Municipio - Roma Capitale
Agenda 21 - V Municipio - Roma Capitale
Azienda per la mobilità, ATAC Spa
Acea Spa - Unità Sviluppo e Progetti Speciali
ITALGAS - Roma
AMA Roma Spa
"Sapienza" Università Degli Studi di Roma - Dipartimento Architettura e Urbanistica per l'Ingegneria- Centro di Ricerca CRITEVAT-
Ferrovie dello Stato;
ITALFERR Gruppo Ferrovie dello Stato
Bross Srl / RèDAIS
La Palma - Impresa Sociale Life Etik
CAM Costruzioni Spa
Comitato di Quartiere Casalbertone "I Soliti Ignoti"
Associazione Città di Casal Bertone
Associazione Circolo Futurista Casal Bertone
Associazione Puccini Pulito
Spazio Pubblico Autogestito Strike via di Portonaccio snc7
MPC (Magazzini Popolari Casalbertone)
Centro Sociale Zona Rischio Spazio Pubblico Autogestito
Associazione Nazionale Partigiani Italiani
Circolo Ricreativo Qunitalè
Associazione "Vivere Insieme"
Circolo Anziani Casal Bertone
Parrocchia Santa Maria Consiliatrice
Sección de Rehabilitación de Barriadas, Gerencia de Urbanismo, Ayuntamiento de Sevilla
Delegación de Medio Ambiente, Agenda 21, Ayuntamiento de Sevilla
EMVISESA, Área de Proyectos y Rehabilitación, Ayuntamiento de Sevilla
EMASESA, Dpto. de Infraestructuras de Distribución, Ayuntamiento de Sevilla
TUSSAM, Área de Planificación del Transporte y Calidad, Ayuntamiento de Sevilla
Delegación de Bienestar Social, Servicio de Intervención de Sº Sociales, Ayuntamiento de Sevilla
Participación Ciudadana, Ayuntamiento de Sevilla
Equipo de gestión Tres Barrios- Amate, Ayuntamiento de Sevilla
Delegación de Economía y Empleo, Ayuntamiento de Sevilla
Delegación de Infraestructuras para la Sostenibilidad, Ayuntamiento de Sevilla
Instituto de Deportes, Ayuntamiento de Sevilla
Consejería de Obras Públicas y Viviendas, Dirección General de Rehabilitación Sostenible de Viviendas y Barriadas, Junta de Andalucía
Consejeria de Obras Públicas, Dccion gral de Arquitectura, Servicio de Planificación y Tecnología, Secretaria General de Vivienda, Suelo, Arquitectura e Instituto de Cartografía, Junta de Andalucía
Consejería para la Igualdad y Bienestar Social, Dirección General de Servicios Sociales y Drogodependencia, Junta de Andalucía
Consejería de Empleo, Dirección Área Territorial Sevilla Sur Junta de Andalucía
UNIVERSIDAD DE SEVILLA -ETS de Arquitectura, Dpto de Construcciones Arquitectónicas II, Proyecto Solarkit: proyecto de investigación sobre vivienda sostenible.
Experto externo, Responsable del Sistema Transnacional de Indicadores y SIG CAT MED para Sevilla
Experto externo, Estudio Luis Morales, S.L.
Universidad Pablo de Olavide
Delegación Provincial de Igualdad y Bienestar Social
Real Patronato de la Vivienda
General Secretariat of Macedonia and Thrace
Region of Central Macedonia (Department of environment and zoning)
Prefecture of Thessaloniki (Department of Development)
Technical Chamber of Greece – Region of Central Macedonia branch
Planning Organization of Thessaloniki
Attiko Metro SA
Thessaloniki’s urban transport authority
Municipality of Pylaia
Municipality of Thessaloniki (several Departments)
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki – schooll of Architecture
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki – schooll of urban-regional planning and development engineering
Groups of engineers that have already developed proposals for the area selected
Experts in the field of urban management and sustainability
Città di Torino - Settore Relazioni Internazionali
Città di Torino - Divisione Edilizia Residenziale Pubblica
Città di Torino - Divisione Ambiente, Settore Ciclo dei Rifiuti
Città di Torino - Divisione Servizi Sociali e Rapporti con le ASL
Città di Torino - Circoscrizione 2
Città di Torino - Corpo di Polizia Municipale, Nucleo di Prossimità
Città di Torino - Settore Rigenerazione Urbana e Integrazione
ATC Agenzia Territoriale per la Casa della Provincia di Torino
AMIAT S.p.A. Servizi Territoriali Torino
Amiat S.p.A. Progetti Raccolta Domiciliare Integrata
SMAT Società Metropolitana Acque Torino S.p.A.
Cooperativa Il Punto
Cooperativa Tenda Servizi
Associazione La città possibile
Associazione laboratorio urbano Mentelocale
Parrocchia Gesù Redentore
Fondazione Cascina Roccafranca
ASL TO1 – Sert
Agencia Valenciana de Movilidad Metropolitana
Oficina RIVA, Dirección General de Obras Públicas
Dirección General de Obras Públicas, Conselleria de Infraestructuras y Transportes -Generalitat Valenciana
Servicio de innovación y sociedad de la información – Ayuntamiento de Valencia
Servicio de tecnologías de información y comunicación - Ayuntamiento de Valencia
Delegación de Urbanismo - Ayuntamiento de Valencia
Delegación Ordenación urbana - Ayuntamiento de Valencia
Delegación de Circulación y Transportes - Ayuntamiento de Valencia
Delegación de Sanidad y Contaminación acústica - Ayuntamiento de Valencia
Delegación de Ciclo Integral del Agua – Ayuntamiento de Valencia
Delegación de Calidad Medioambiental, Energías Renovables y Cambio Climático – Ayuntamiento de Valencia
Delegación de Innovación y Sociedad de la Información